Edward Hopper (July 22, 1882 – May 15, 1967) was an American realist painter and printmaker. Born in Nyack, New York, he was known for his oil paintings but was also proficient as a watercolorist and printmaker in etching. Hopper created subdued drama out of commonplace subjects layered with a poetic meaning, inviting narrative interpretations. His career benefited significantly from his marriage to fellow artist Josephine Nivison, who contributed much to his work, both as a life-model and as a creative partner. Hopper is one of America’s most renowned artists, and his influence on art and popular culture has been substantial. Among his best-known paintings are New York Movie (1939) and Nighthawks (1942).

In terms of cultural impact, Hopper’s realistic depictions of everyday urban scenes shocked viewers into recognizing the strangeness of familiar surroundings. He strongly influenced the Pop art and New Realist painters of the 1960s and 1970s. His brand of Americanism offered a counterpoint to American optimism in a transforming America of the 20th century. His influence has touched artists in a range of media and inspired a whole school of photographers. Hopper’s work also had a significant influence on non-American filmmakers who saw an intensity in Hopper, a sense of emptiness, and a lack of communication that resonated universally.